Burmese Cooks Make the World's Most Delicious Salads—Here's How to Make Them at Home

adding parmesean to salad

Photo by Leigh Beisch

We were in a scrum of diners, pointing at small plates stacked at the counter while servers wrote down orders. Jet-lagged, I gestured at a dish of sliced samosas and cabbage and let my companions choose the rest.

A platter of vegetables—a standard restaurant freebie—­arrived ahead of shrimp curry, rice, stir-fried water spinach and bowls topped with shallots, garlic and dried shrimp. Soon the table was covered, with no two dishes alike.

Many of these plates were what people in Myanmar call thoke, salad. But it means "salad" only in the loosest sense. A better translation is that these are dishes mixed by hand and served at room temperature—like many American salads. But that's where the similarities end.

Burmese salads range from simple combinations of pickled ginger and cabbage to complex matrixes of noodles and 20 other ingredients. And while Burmese cooks are experts at balancing intense flavors, what makes each salad memorable is texture.

One of the crunchiest salads on the ­table combined crispy garlic, fried split peas and peanuts, cabbage and umami-rich laphet, fermented tea leaves. This dish—laphet thoke, tea-leaf salad—is what drives the hour-long wait at the San Francisco Bay Area Burma Superstar restaurants. I was in Yangon, Myanmar's largest city, with their owner, Desmond Tan, to research the Burma Superstar cookbook.

All the salads on the table were revelations. If my order—fried samosas tossed in mint, tamarind water and cabbage—was a "salad," I was going to enjoy this crash course in Burmese cuisine. And the restaurant—Feel Myanmar Food, a place near several embassies—was a perfect introduction.

That Myanmar has embassies is remarkable, given that the country formerly called Burma cut itself off from the world following a military coup in 1962. In 2010, the military's grip began to loosen, prompting countries to ease sanctions. But ethnic fighting continues, as does the humanitarian crisis over the Rohingya, a Muslim minority group not recognized by the government.

Yet visiting the country is like seeing a young democracy find its way. ­After decades of isolation from the modern world, the country moved quickly from typewriters to smart phones. Cars, once scarce, clog Yangon's streets. But food has changed relatively little. Fast food is rare, modern grocery stores even more so, and even high-end restaurants are low-tech, cooking with charcoal stoves and a few woks.

Salads, made seemingly everywhere, are a way to create variety from very little. On the steamy climb to visit the temple on Mt. Popa, we not only passed monkeys but also women mixing noodle salad26s dressed with tamarind water. Later we cooled off with a green tomato salad with peanuts and cilantro. And at a tiny market we were offered dried mutton tossed with shallots, garlic, lime juice and chiles.

"What is it?" we asked. "Thoke," the owner told us. We ordered a second plate.

I've learned how to satisfy thoke cravings at home. These salads share a similar rhythm of salty and sour flavors combined with a bass note of umami. Tamarind water or lime juice adds sour; fish sauce, shrimp paste or ground shrimp adds salt and funk. Shredded cabbage makes up the chorus. As for the rest, anything goes, and I often veer from tradition, opting for romaine lettuce in place of cabbage or grapefruit instead of the local citrus. The spirit of Burmese salads—use what you have—travels well.

There will always be something special about eating thoke. But now I don't have to cross the Pacific to get my fix.

{{GridCardRow:r-262787,r-262782,r-262783,r-262784,r-262785,r-262786,r-2627827;Title:`Burmese Salad Recipes to Try`}}

Burmese Salad Staples

ariel view bowls of ingredients

Photo by Leigh Beisch

Keep these ingredients on hand to make Burmese-style salads any night.

1. Toasted Chickpea Flour

Toast 1/4 cup chickpea flour in a dry medium skillet over medium heat, stirring frequently, until golden, about 3 minutes. Transfer to a small bowl and let cool. Store airtight in a cool dark place for up to 2 months.

2. Dried Shrimp Powder

Put 2 Tbsp. dried shrimp in a coffee grinder reserved for grinding spices. Pulse until ground to a fluffy powder. Store airtight at room temperature for up to 3 days or freeze for up to 6 months.

3. Fried Yellow Split Peas

Soak 1/3 cup yellow split peas in water for at least 4 hours or up to 12 hours. Drain and pat dry. Place a fine-mesh strainer over a heatproof bowl. Heat 3/4 cup canola oil in a small skillet over medium heat. Add the split peas and cook, stirring often, until they start to turn a deep mustard color, 4 to 6 minutes. Pour the split peas and oil through the strainer (discard the oil). Transfer the split peas to a paper-­towel-lined plate. Store airtight at room temperature for up to 2 weeks.

4. Fried Shallots

Place a fine-mesh strainer over a heatproof bowl. Heat 1/2 cup canola oil in a small skillet over medium-high heat. Add 1/2 cup halved and sliced shallots, reduce heat to medium and cook, stirring often, until golden brown, 3 to 5 minutes. Pour the shallots and oil through the strainer. Transfer the shallots to a paper-towel-lined plate. Reserve the oil, if desired. Store fried shallots airtight at room temperature for up to a week; refrigerate the oil for up to 2 months.

5. Seedless Tamarind Paste

Sometimes called "wet tamarind," this is found with other Asian pantry ingredients at well-stocked supermarkets. Avoid tamarind pods or tamarind concentrate, which has a different flavor and texture. Refrigerate for up to 1 year.

6. Fried Garlic

Place a fine-mesh strainer over a heatproof bowl. Heat 1/3 cup canola oil in a small skillet over medium heat. Reduce heat to low and add 1/4 cup sliced garlic; cook, stirring frequently, until the garlic is golden brown, about 4 minutes. Pour the garlic and oil through the strainer. Transfer the garlic to a paper-towel-lined plate. Reserve the oil to use on salads. Store fried garlic airtight in a cool dark place for up to 1 month; refrigerate the oil for up to 2 months.

The Best of Burma

Before you go

Cheers if you're an intrepid traveler. But, given the political situation in Myanmar, it's smart to check with your state department for travel advisories before you finalize your plans.

Where to Go

Travel between November and February for the best weather. Connecting flights to Yangon leave from Doha, Taipei, Bangkok and Seoul. Book flights within Myanmar through a local travel agent or at the Yangon airport.

Where to Stay

YANGON: Relive the city's colonial past at The Strand or watch modern-day dealmaking in the lobby of the Sule ­Shangri-La.

MANDALAY: Stay at the Mandalay Hill Resort Hotel for easy access to walk up the hill overlooking the city.

BAGAN: Relax along the Ayeyarwady River after temple hopping at the Thiripyitsaya Sanctuary Resort.

Where & What to Eat

YANGON: For a crash course in Burmese food, hit Feel Myanmar Food or try House of Memories for a look at Myanmar's past, including a room said to have been the office of revolutionary leader Aung San.

MANDALAY: Visit Mingalabar Myanmar for regional specialties.

DON'T MISS: Start the day with a bowl of mohinga—the country's beloved catfish noodle soup. And, look for spots serving Shan noodles, banana leaf salad and spicy ­Rakhine fish dishes.

Kate Leahy is a San Francisco-based cookbook author. Her next book, Lavash, due out in 2019, takes her to the world of Armenian flatbreads.

Each product we feature has been independently selected and reviewed by our editorial team. If you make a purchase using the links included, we may earn commission.

Author Handle/ID
Teaser Copy
Love salads? These bold and balanced Burmese salads will make you love them even more.
Dock Right Rail
For Category Page, Second Priority Image - URL path (used in grid and Featured Story if First Priority is blank)
For Category Page, First Priority Image - URL path (used for grid and Featured Story)
For Category Page, Third Priority Image upload (used in grid and Featured Story if URL paths are blank)
adding parmesean to salad